Termite-Inspired Robots for Collective Construction
Mound-building termites build large-scale complex structures using millions of individuals and no central point of control. Inspired by these termites, we developed TERMES, a swarm construction system in which large numbers of autonomous robots build human-scale structures according to user-specified blueprints. The system is comprised of a control algorithm for decentralized construction of 3D structures using stigmergy, exploiting implicit rather than explicit communication; and a physical implementation where three robots reliably assemble such structures using only local sensing, limited locomotion, and simple control, exploiting embodied rather than explicit intelligence.
This project started at Harvard University 2009-2014 in the SSR-lab. In the CEI-lab we are currently expanding upon this work, by 1) making faster and better compilers, 2) enabling the robots to build overhangs, and 3) studying human robot interaction in construction tasks through a simulated environment in Minecraft.
- Kirstin H. Petersen, Nils Napp, Robert Stuart-Smith, Daniela Rus, and Mirko Kovac. “A review of collective robotic construction.” Science Robotics, 13 Mar 2019: Vol. 4, Issue 28, DOI: 10.1126/scirobotics.aau8479. (Paper)(Teaser video).
- Yawen Deng, Yiwen Hua, Nils Napp, and Kirstin Petersen, “Scalable Compiler for the TERMES Distributed Assembly System.” Distributed Autonomous Robotic Systems. Springer, Cham, 2019. 125-138. (Pdf)
- Yiwen Hua, Yawen Deng, and Kirstin Petersen, “Robots building bridges, not walls.” In 2018 IEEE 3rd International Workshops on Foundations and Applications of Self* Systems (FAS* W) (pp. 154-159). IEEE. (Pdf)
- J. Werfel, K. Petersen, and R. Nagpal, “Designing Collective Behavior in a Termite-Inspired Robot Construction Team,” Science, Vol. 343 (6172), pp: 754-758, 2014 (Paper).
- K. Petersen, R. Nagpal, and J. Werfel, “TERMES: An autonomous robotic system for three-dimensional collective construction,” Robotics: Science and Systems Conference (RSS), Los Angeles, USA, 2011 (Pdf).
- J. Werfel, K. Petersen, and R. Nagpal, “Distributed Multi-Robot Algorithms for the TERMES 3D Collective Construction System.” Modular Robotics Workshop, Intl. Conference on Robots and Systems, 2011 (Pdf).
Studies of African Mound-Building Termites
African species of mound building termites display one of the most impressive examples of scalable and robust coordination, where millions of simple insects coordinate to build mounds many orders of magnitude the size of the individuals. The termites have proven notoriously hard to study, they prefer their underground dwellings, and are very susceptible to disturbances. We are developing a new set of software and hardware tools to help entomologists in the field uncover how these insects manage to produce such complex global behavior. Our hope is that these will significantly advance our conception of robot swarms as well.
The toolset includes software to automatically track and label the behavior of termites in confined experimental arenas, 3D scanners for continuous observation of termite construction ex-situ, and in-situ setups to compare the alarm response time across different species and colonies. We are especially interested in the role cement-pheromone plays in coordination of construction, and the possibility of task allocation in termites. The data we extract is critical to refine underdeveloped models of termite coordination, and to inform the design of equally scalable and adaptable artificial swarms in the future.
This project started in the SSR Lab at Harvard University, 2011-2014.
- K. Petersen et al., “Arrestant property of recently manipulated soil on Macrotermes michaelseni as determined through visual tracking and automatic labeling of individual termite behaviors.” Journal of Behavioral Processes, vol. 116: 8-11, 2015. (Paper)
- K. Petersen, N. Napp, J. Chin-Lee, J. Werfel, and R. Nagpal, “3D Tracking of Building Processes in Macrotermes,” VAIB workshop, Intl. Conference on Pattern Recognition, 2012. (Pdf)